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Toyota NR series engines

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Eugenio,77
mail@toyota-club.net
© Toyota-Club.Net
Jan 2013 - Feb 2016



The priority in the creation and production of new small-displacement series belonged to Daihatsu department, but NR are most known as engines of Toyota models. First engine of the series - 1NR-FE - introduced in 2008 for European market. It immediately replaced outdated 4ZZ-FE at overseas market and then gradually supplanted 2NZ-FE and 2SZ-FE at domestic market. Over time, the other modifications began to displace old good 1NZ-FE. At mid-2010s it installed in A/B/C-class cars.

Engine Displacement, cm3 Bore x Stroke, mm Compression ratio Output, hp Torque, Nm RON Sys Market
1NR-FE132972.5 x 80.511.599 / 6000132 / 380095EFIEEC
1NR-FE132972.5 x 80.511.595 / 6000119 / 400091EFIJIS
1NR-FKE132972.5 x 80.513.599 / 6000121 / 440091EFIJIS
1NR-VE132972.5 x 80.5-95 / 6000120 / 4200-EFI-
2NR-FE149672.5 x 90.610.590 / 5600132 / 3000-EFIInd
2NR-VE149672.5 x 90.6-104 / 6000139 / 4200-EFI-
2NR-FKE149672.5 x 90.613.5109 / 6000136 / 440091EFIJIS
3NR-FE119772.5 x 72.510.580 / 5600104 / 3100-EFIInd
3NR-FE119772.5 x 72.511.586 / 6000108 / 4000-EFI-
4NR-FE132972.5 x 80.511.599 / 6000123 / 4200-EFICHN
5NR-FE149672.5 x 90.611.5107 / 6000140 / 4200-EFICHN
6NR-FE132972.5 x 80.511.599 / 6000123 / 4200-EFICHN
7NR-FE149672.5 x 90.611.5107 / 6000140 / 4200-EFICHN
8NR-FTS119771.5 x 74.510.0115 / 5200185 / 1500-400095D-4TEEC

1NR-FE (1.3 EFI DVVT) - basic motor - transverse layout, multi-point injection, variable valve timing for both camshafts. Installed in: Auris 150..180, Corolla 150..180, Corolla Axio 160, iQ 10, Passo 30, Porte/Spade 140, Probox/Succeed 160, Ractis 120, Urban Cruiser, Verso-S, Vitz 130, Yaris 130, Daihatsu Boon, Charade, Subaru Trezia, Aston Martin Cygnet.

1NR-FKE (1.3 EFI DVVT-iE) - multi-point injection, VVT-iE and Miller / Atkinson cycle operation mode. Installed in: Ractis 120, Vitz 130, Subaru Trezia.

1NR-VE (1.3 EFI DVVT) - multi-point injection, variable valve timing for both camshafts. Daihatsu version for their own development models. Installed in: Avanza 650, Daihatsu Xenia.

2NR-FE (1.5 EFI) type'10 - multi-point injection, without variable valve timing. Simplified versions for Indian market, without VVT and lash adjusters. Installed in: Etios/Etios Cross.

2NR-VE (1.5 EFI DVVT) type'13 - multi-point injection, variable valve timing for both camshafts. Daihatsu version for their own development models. Installed in: Avanza 650.

2NR-FKE (1.5 EFI DVVT-iE) - multi-point injection, VVT-iE and Miller / Atkinson cycle operation mode. Installed in: Corolla Axio 160, Corolla Fielder 160, Porte/Spade 140, Sienta 170, Mitsuoka Ryugi.

3NR-FE (1.2 EFI) type'10 - multi-point injection, without variable valve timing. Simplified versions for Indian market, without VVT and lash adjusters. Installed in: Etios Liva/Cross.

3NR-FE (1.2 EFI DVVT) type'13 - multi-point injection, variable valve timing for both camshafts. Installed in: Yaris 150.

4NR-FE (1.3 EFI DVVT) - analogue of 1NR-FE for Chinese market. Installed in: Vios 150 CHN.

5NR-FE (1.5 EFI DVVT) - analogue of 2NR-VE for Chinese market. Installed in: Vios 150 CHN.

6NR-FE (1.3 EFI DVVT) - analogue of 1NR-FE for Chinese market. Installed in: Yaris 150 CHN.

7NR-FE (1.5 EFI DVVT) - analogue of 2NR-VE for Chinese market. Installed in: Yaris 150 CHN.

8NR-FTS (1.2 D-4T DVVT-iW) - direct injection, turbocharged, VVT-iW and Miller / Atkinson cycle operation mode. Installed in: Auris 180.



1NR-FE (1.3 EFI)

Engine mechanical

The cylinder block - aluminium "open deck" with thin cast iron liners. The liners are fused into block and their special rough outer surface promotes strong connection. The wall thickness between the cylinders 7 mm only, no overhaul with reboring provided by manufacturer.


The axis of the crankshaft has been shifted by 8 mm relative to the cylinder axis lines ("desaxage"), thus reducing the lateral component of the force exerted by the piston to the cylinder wall, reducing wear.


There is the spacer in the water jacket installed, it allows more intensive coolant circulation near the top of the cylinder, which improves heat dissipation and helps to more evenly thermally load.


The crankshaft has 4 balance weights, narrowed journals and individual main bearing caps.

Pistons - alloy, compact T-shaped in projection, with cutted skirt. The groove for the upper compression ring is anodized, the edge of the upper compression ring and oil scraper have anti-wear PVD coating. A drawback - piston pins non full-floating, but press-fitted into the connecting rod (except A series, this solution consistently causes accelerated wear and the noise).

The camshafts are installed in a separate housing, which mounted on the cylinder head - it simplifies the design and manufacturing technology of cylinder head.
There are hydraulic lash adjusters and roller rockers in the valvetrain mechanism. "Indian" motors have old-style adjusting tappets.
The head cover is made of plastic and provided with oil delivery pipe for the rockers lubrication.

Timing drive - 16-valve DOHC, driven by single-row roller chain (pitch 8 mm) with hydraulic tensioner.

VVT actuators both on the inlet and outlet camshafts are installed (DVVT - Dual Variable Valve Timing). Timing variations range - 50° for intake and 45° for exhaust.


The water pump is installed in cast timing chain cover.


Lubrication

Trochoid oil pump is driven by crankshaft.
Oil nozzles that lubricate and cool the pistons are provided.


The oil filter is mounted vertically under the engine. Used the collapsible filter with replaceable cartridges.

Cooling system

Cooling system is classic: pump drive by outer side of serpentine belt, "cold" (80-84°C) mechanical thermostat, heated throttle body.

1 - thermostat 2 - thermostat housing (plastic), 3 - EGR valve, 4 - to heater, 5 - to radiator, 6 - from heater, 7 - from radiator, 8 - water pump.

Versions for cold climate area are equipped with coolant heater (by exhaust gases). In the central pipe the valve actuator with the thermostat is integrated: after cold starting gases pass through the heat exchanger, then as the valve opens and the heating gases already flow to the exhaust.


Engine is equipped with separate fan motor control unit, which allows to adjust fan speed depending on the coolant temperature, refrigerant pressure, vehicle speed and engine speed.

Intake and exhaust

Plastic intake manifold mounted at bulkhead side, steel exhaust manifold - at front side.
A drawback - EGR system, with valve driven by stepper motor.


Control system (EFI)

Fuel injection - traditional multipoint, sequential under normal conditions, at low temperature and low speed grouped injection can be performed.

- Mass air flow sensor (MAF) - "hot wire" type, combined with the intake temperature sensor.
- Manifold preessure sensor (MAP) was installed in Euro 5 modifications.
- Throttle valve - fully electronically controlled (ETCS): DC motor, dual-channel non-contact position sensor (Hall effect). ETCS performs some functions of traction control (TRC) and stabilization (VSC).


- Accelerator pedal position sensor - dual-channel non-contact (Hall effect).
- Crankshaft and camshaft position sensors - MRE type (magnetoresistive), provide a digital output signal and work properly at low engine speed.
- Knock sensor - wideband "flat" piezoelectric, unlike the old type of resonant knock sensors it feels a wider range of vibration frequencies.
- Upstream catalyst - planar type air-fuel ratio (AFS) sensor (advantage - rapid heating), downstream - normal oxygen sensor.
- Injectors with elongate nozzle are installed in the cylinder head and the fuel is injected as close as possible to the intake valves.
- Fuel supply - without return line. In addition to the pressure regulator and level gauge sensor, EVAP canister is combinde with the fuel pump in the tank.

1 - absorber, 2 - fuel pump, 3 - fuel filter, 4 - pressure regulator, 5 - fuel level sensor.

Electrical

Ignition system - DIS-4 (separate coil for each cylinder). Spark plugs - thin "iridium" SG20HR11 with long threaded portion, hex 14 mm.

There are a few new features in starting system. Semi-automatic starting - it is enough to turn the key to START and release, after which the control system automatically keeps the starter on until the engine start. When the stop-start system is active, the control remembers cycle phase for each cylinder after engine stall, so at re-start the fuel and spark are supplied the cylinder which is able to join in the work immediately.

Charging system - with segment conductor alternators, 80-100A output, one-way clutch in pulley.
Continuously charging of battery is carried out during deceleration, but in steady-state mode cycles of charging and discharging of the battery are alternates for maximum efficiency. More complex control system required to use the battery temperature sensor and current sensor.

Auxiliary drive - by single serpentine belt with automatic tensioner.

Experience

The engine have disadvantages are not related to its design: first, it does not provide adequate thrust-weight ratio even for rather heavy B-class cars and does not fit to modern C-class cars; second, at overseas market it is usually aggregated with manual gearbox.

With regard to structural defects, the manufacturer issued only instructions related to increased oil consumption and difficult start. But it is not difficult to draw an analogy with other series weaknesses - VVT actuators after a cold start, water pump leaks, excessive carbon deposits due to EGR operation.



1NR-FKE (1.3 EFI) / 2NR-FKE (1.5 EFI)

Among the differences from the base engine noting:
- Variable valve timing system VVT-iE - see details.
- - Implemented a possibility of engine operation by Miller / Atkinson cycle - see details.
- High geometric compression ratio.
- Exhaust pipe of 4-2-1 type.



8NR-FTS (1.2 D-4T)
Note fundamental aspects and differences of the motor, that not like the other engines of the series.

Engine mechanical

- Variable valve timing system VVT-iW - see details.
- Implemented a possibility of engine operation in Miller / Atkinson cycle - see details.

- Strengthening cylinder block.

1 - cylinder block, 2 - thermostat (block), 3 - cylinder bore. a - water passage, b - rib, c - oil separate chamber 1, d - knock sensor boss, f - water jacket, g - breather hole, i - liner, j - bore honing.

- Crankshaft with 8 counterweights.

1 - crankshaft, 2 - thrust washer, 3 - bearing. a - micro-grooved, b - oil groove.

1 - piston, 2 - anti-friction ring carrier, 3 - upper compression ring, 4 - lower compression ring, 5 - oil ring, 6 - expander. a - combustion chamber, b - polymer coating, c - compression height, e - PVD coating, f - chrome coating.

1 - camshaft bearing cap, 2 - camshaft housing, 3 - cylinder head. c - water jacket (2-stage), d - intake port.

- Supply pump driven by additional cam of the intake camshaft.
- Vacuum pump driven by the exhaust camshaft (for brake booster operation and turbocharger control).

1 - timing chain cover, 2 - VVT-i solenoid, 3 - VVT-iW solenoid.

1 - intake camshaft sprocket, 2 - exhaust camshaft sprocket, 3 - VVT-i solenoid, 4 - VVT-iW solenoid, 5 - exhaust camshaft, 6 - vacuum pump, 7 - intake camshaft, 8 - fuel pump driving cam, 9 - high pressure fuel pump, 10 - valve rocker, 11 - valve stem cap, 12 - valve spring retainer lock, 13 - valve spring retainer, 14 - valve spring, 15 - valve spring seat, 16 - valve, 17 - lash adjuster.

- Cylinder head cover made of aluminium.
1 - cylinder head cover, 2 - oil delivery pipe, 3 - baffle plate.

- Applied sodium cooled valves.
- The exhaust manifold is integrated into the cylinder head.


Crankcase ventilation system.

The boost means as increasing the amount of crankcase bypass gases and inability to utilize it by conventional method using the intake vacuum. Therefore, the ejector is mounted in the head cover, so in boost mode gases with high content of hydrocarbons do not fall into the atmosphere but return to the intake and then burn in the cylinder.

Another separator chamber is installed to crankcase.

1 - ejector, 2 - PCV valve, 3 - oil separate chamber.

In the boost mode crankcase gases discharged via the ejector to intake.

1 - air cleaner, 2 - cylinder head cover, 3 - cylinder head, 4 - cylinder block, 5 - crankcase, 6 - oil pan, 7 - oil separate chamber, 8 - PCV valve, 9 - intake manifold, 10 - throttle body, 11 - intercooler, 12 - turbocharger, 13 - ejector. a - fresh air, b - fresh air + blowby gas, c - ejector drive gas.

The ejector operates on the principle of Venturi - crankcase gases are sucked into the stream of flowing compressed air.

1 - nozzle. a - air from downstream of turbocharger, b - to upstream of turbocharger.

Without a significant boost, crankcase gases are sucked through a conventional PCV valve.

1 - air cleaner, 2 - cylinder head cover, 3 - cylinder head, 4 - cylinder block, 5 - crankcase, 6 - oil pan, 7 - oil separate chamber, 8 - PCV valve, 9 - intake manifold, 10 - throttle body, 11 - intercooler, 12 - turbocharger, 13 - ejector. a - fresh air, b - fresh air + blowby gas.


Cooling system

• The engine is equipped by two thermostats:
- Traditional thermostat (opening temperature 80-84°C) in the water inlet controls the coolant flow through the radiator
- Thermostat on the cylinder block (opening temperature 76-80°C) controls the coolant flow through the block, to maximal fast warming up

1 - cylinder head, 2 - water inlet, 3 - thermostat (block), 4 - cylinder block, 5 - water pump, 6 - throttle body, 7 - thermostat, 8 - intercooler reserve tank, 9 - radiator, 10 - bleeder valve, 11 - heater radiator, 12 - CVT fluid warmer.

• Built-in cylinder head exhaust manifold allows to cool the exhaust gases before its entering to the turbocharger.


Lubrication

• Unlike other engines with common nozzles for piston lubrication and cooling, the ECM can control the oil injection depending on external conditions.

Cold engine / Warmed up engine

Relief and control valves are installed in oil pump relief valve housing.

1 - oil pump relief valve housing, 2 - oil pressure switching valve, 3 - relief valve.

1 - oil pressure switching valve. a - closed, b - opened, c - coil, d - plunger, e - ball, f - from oil pump, g - to relief valve.

1) The oil supplied to the rear of the relief valve, cutting off the oil flow to the nozzles.

1 - relief valve, 2 - oil control valve, 3 - ECM, 4 - nozzle. a - engine oil.

2) The oil flow to relief valve end stops, the valve opens and the oil is supplied to the nozzles.

1 - relief valve, 2 - oil control valve, 3 - ECM, 4 - nozzle. a - engine oil, b - drain.

• Engine oil level sensor is installed.


1 - oil level sensor, 2 - oil level switch. a - ON, b - OFF.


Intake and exhaust

1 - turbocharger, 2 - air bypass valve, 3 - actuator, 4 - wastegate valve, 5 - coil, 6 - shaft, 7 - valve, 8 - compressor wheel, 9 - turbine wheel. c - exhaust gas, d - intake air.

Boost pressure control is performed by classic wastegate valve.

- When the engine is stopped - WGT valve open.
- When starting control valve shuts off the vacuum supply from the pump to the actuator, which in turn opens WGT. As a result, the hot exhaust gases flow directly into the converter to accelerate its warm-up.
- At low loads, when there is no need for a boost, opened WGT reduces resistance and reduces pumping losses at exhaust. By reducing the amount of residual gas the stability of the combustion process is increased.

1 - compressor wheel, 2 - turbine wheel, 3 - wastegate valve, 4 - actuator, 5 - ECM, 6 - vacuum regulating valve, 7 - check valve 2, 8 - vacuum pump.

- At high load WGT is closed and the turbine comes into effective operation.

1 - compressor wheel, 2 - turbine wheel, 3 - wastegate valve, 4 - actuator, 5 - ECM, 6 - vacuum regulating valve, 7 - check valve 2, 8 - vacuum pump.

Air bypass valve serves to prevent a situation where the sudden closing of the throttle rouse to pressure incresing between the turbocharger and the throttle, until the occurrence of reverse flow, accompanied by abnormal noise.

1 - ECM, 2 - air bypass valve, 3 - compressor wheel, 4 - turbine wheel. a - to throttle body.

• Independent turbocharger cooling circuit with an electric pump and own radiator is used.

1 - electric water pump, 2 - intercooler, 3 - turbocharger, 4 - intercooler reserve tank, 5 - intercooler radiator.

- Intercooler - water-air type.

1 - intercooler, 2 - intake manifold, 3 - inner fin.

- ECM controls the coolant flow rate and cooling efficiency by electric pump speed.

Electric pump. a - inlet, b - outlet, c - rotor, d - shaft.

Fuel injection system (D-4T)

1 - ECM, 2 - fuel pump control unit, 3 - fuel tank, 4 - fuel pressure regulator, 5 - fuel pump (low pressure), 6 - fuel pump filter, 7 - charcoal canister, 8 - fuel suction tube, 9 - fuel pump (high pressure), 10 - fuel pressure pulsation damper, 11 - camshaft, 12 - relief valve, 13 - check valve, 14 - control valve, 15 - fuel rail, 16 - injector, 17 - fuel pressure sensor.

Fuel injection - direct in the combustion chamber, is synchronized with piston position. The fuel from tank pump is supplied to high pressure pump, than under pressure into the fuel rail, and finally into the cylinders by injectors. Injection can be carried out several times at the cycle.

Injection/supply pump. Single-plunger with control valve, relief valve, check valve and pulsation damper at inlet. Mounted on the valve cover and dreven by 4-lobes cam of the camshaft. The fuel pressure is regulated in the range 2.4-20 MPa depending on driving conditions.

1 - control valve, 2 - roller lifter, 3 - fuel tank, 4 - fuel pressure regulator, 5 - fuel pump (low pressure), 6 - fuel suction filter, 7 - fuel suction tube, 8 - charcoal canister, 9 - fuel pump (high pressure), 10 - fuel pressure pulsation damper, 11 - camshaft, 12 - relief valve, 13 - plunger, 14 - check valve, 15 - fuel pressure sensor, 16 - injector, 17 - fuel rail. a - low-pressure, b - high-pressure, c - high-pressure pipe.

- At inlet stroke (A) the plunger 2 moves downward and fuel draws into the pumping chamber.
- At the beginning of the compression stroke (B) part of the fuel is returned while control valve 1 is open (the specified fuel pressure is set).
- At the end of the compression stroke (C) the control valve is closed and the pressurized fuel through the check valve 3 is supplied into the fuel rail.


Fuel rail. Made of forged iron, contains fuel pressure sensor to provide feedback.

1 - fuel pipe (high pressure), 2 - fuel rail, 3 - fuel pressure sensor, 4 - injector holder, 5 - injector.

Injectors. Slotted nozzle injector injects the fuel into the cylinder as specific shaped spray that draws in a significant amount of air and increases the mass admission. Sealing teflon (PTFE) rings further reduce vibration.

1 - O-ring, 2 - backup ring, 3 - insulator, 4 - teflon seal.

Spark plugs. - NGK DILKAR8J9G, gap 0.8-0.9 mm.



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