Toyota all-wheel drive. E-Four

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Eugenio,77
mail@toyota-club.net
© Toyota-Club.Net
Oct 2019




Hybrid models form a separate type of conditionally all-wheel drive - e4WD (Toyota designation "E-Four" and "AWD-i"). Its general principle is quite simple: a separate electric motor (MGR motor-generator) drives the rear wheels via a two-stage reducer. A few variants of the rear drive module have developed.

Q210
· Layout - 3-shaft type
· Electric motor - 1FM (18 kW / 108 Nm), with permanent magnets
· Gear ratio - 6.311 (Estima) / 6.859 (Alphard)
· Capacity - 1.5 l (ATF Type T-IV)


1 - motor generator (MGR), 2 - counter drive gear, 3 - counter driven gear, 4 - differential drive pinion gear, 5 - differential ring gear, 6 - differential gear unit.

ModelProduction
Alphard ATH102003-2008
Estima AHR102001-2006



Q211
· Layout - 3-shaft type
· Electric motor - 2FM (50 kW / 130 Nm or 139 Nm), with permanent magnets
· Gear ratio - 6.859 (1st stage - 23:40, final gear - 18:71)
· Capacity - 1.8 l (ATF WS)
· Module weight - 41.8 kg


1 - motor generator (MGR), 2 - counter drive gear, 3 - counter driven gear, 4 - differential drive pinion gear, 5 - differential ring gear, 6 - differential gear unit, 7 - differential side gear shaft. a - to left rear wheel, b - to right rear wheel


1 - motor cover, 2 - transaxle case, 3 - transaxle cover. a - cooling fin


1 - fluid catch tank, 2 - differential ring gear. a - fluid slung, b - MGR lubrication

ModelProduction
Alphard/Vellfire ATH202008-2015
Alphard/Vellfire AYH302015-..
Estima AHR202006-2019
Harrier MHU382005-2012
Harrier AVU652013-..
Highlander MHU282005-2007
Highlander MHU482007-2010
Highlander GVU482010-2014
Highlander GVU582014-..
Kluger MHU282005-2007
Lexus RX400h MHU382005-2008
Lexus RX450h GYL152009-2015
Lexus RX450h GYL252015-..
Lexus NX300h AYZ152014-..
RAV4 AVA442015-..



Q510
· Layout - 2-shaft type
· Electric motor - 1MM (5.0 or 5.3 kW / 55 Nm), induction type
· Gear ratio - 10.487 (1st stage - 17:39, final gear - 14:64)
· Capacity - 1.2-1.3 l (ATF WS)
· Module weight - 29.2 kg


1 - motor generator (MGR), 2 - side gear shaft LH, 3 - counter drive gear, 4 - ring gear, 5 - differential, 6 - side gear shaft RH, 7 - differential drive gear, 8 - counter driven gear. a - to left rear wheel, b - to right rear wheel


1 - transaxle cover, 2 - intermediate case, 3 - transaxle case, 4 - motor cover


1 - fluid catch tank, 2 - counter driven gear, 3 - ring gear. a,b - lubrication, d - initial oil level, e - high speed oil level



ModelProduction
Camry AXVH752019-..
Corolla ZWE214W2019-..
Corolla Touring ZWE214W2019-..
Lexus UX250h MZAH152018-..
Prius ZVW552015-..



Q610
· Layout - 3-shaft type
· Electric motor - 4NM (40 kW / 120 Nm), with permanent magnets
· Gear ratio - 10.781 (1st stage - 15:41, final gear - 18:71)
· Differential with pre-load spring washers
· Capacity - 1.7 l (ATF WS)
· Module weight - 41.1 kg


1 - motor generator MGR, 2 - counter drive gear, 3 - counter driven gear, 4 - differential drive gear, 5 - ring gear, 6 - drive shaft LH, 7 - differential, 8 - drive shaft RH. a - differential pre-torque mechanism, b - light load, c - middle and high load, d - side gear, e - conical spring washer, f - thrust washer, g - differential case


1 - motor cover, 2 - transaxle case, 3 - transaxle cover

Control features: TRAIL mode - "a system that performs integrated control for the AWD, brake and drive force control systems to assist the drive power on bumpy roads", can be activated by a switch on the instrument panel.

ModelProduction
RAV4 AXAH542018-..



Experience
Most older models with E-Four can be called "all-wheel drive" only in quotation marks - their real capabilities did not even reach the very modest level of similar non-hybrid models with ATC type all-wheel drive. Both possible problems were present - insufficient torque at the rear wheels and Toyota's traditional inability to make an adequate emulation of the axle differential locking by braking the slipping wheel.

A lot of illustrations can be found on Youtube (RAV4 AVA44 and the similar NX300h - very bad, RX450h - slightly better):

Some changes were outlined only in the mid-2010s, so the new generation of E-Four (RAV4 AXAH54) is already showing some progress, and even the motor from the lawn mower (Prius ZVW55, UX250h) is trying to be useful. Maybe Toyota will finally overcome the inertia of its own traditions...


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