Toyota ZR series engines

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Eugenio,77
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Nov 2012 - Oct 2019




EngineDisplacement, cm3Bore x Stroke, mmCompression ratioOutput, hpTorque, NmRONECSMarket
1ZR-FE159880.5 x 75.510.2124 / 6000157 / 520095116EEC
1ZR-FAE159880.5 x 75.510.2132 / 6400160 / 440095122EEC
2ZR-FE179880.5 x 88.310.0125-136 / 6000163-175 / 440091117EEC/JIS
2ZR-FAE179880.5 x 88.310.0147 / 6400180 / 400095123EEC
2ZR-FAE179880.5 x 88.310.0130-144 / 6400161-176 / 440091123JIS
2ZR-FXE179880.5 x 88.313.098 / 5200142 / 360091-EEC
3ZR-FE198780.5 x 97.610.0139-145 / 6500189 / 440091116EEC
3ZR-FE198780.5 x 97.610.0143 / 5600194 / 390091116JIS
3ZR-FAE198780.5 x 97.610.0152-158 / 6200192-196 / 440091-JIS

1ZR-FE (1.6 EFI DVVT). Replacement of 3ZZ-FE. Used for: Corolla 140..150..170..180..210, Auris 150, Yaris 90, Vios 90, Corolla 120 CHN, E'Z
1ZR-FAE (1.6 EFI DVVT Valvematic). Replacement of 3ZZ-FE. Used for: Verso 20, Corolla 150..170..180..210, Auris 150..180, Avensis 270
1ZR-FBE (1.6 EFI DVVT). Flex-fuel version (emergency markets). Used for: Corolla 170
2ZR-FE (1.8 EFI DVVT). Replacement of 1ZZ-FE. Used for: Yaris 90, Corolla 140..150..170..180..210, E'Z, Auris 150, Levin 180, Scion xD, Matrix 140, Ist 110, Corolla Axio/Fielder 140, Corolla Rumion, Allion/Premio 260, Lotus Elise, Pontiac Vibe, Junpai D60
2ZR-FAE (1.8 EFI DVVT Valvematic). Replacement of 1ZZ-FE. Used for: Verso 20, Auris 150, Avensis 270, Sienta 170, Corolla 170..210, Wish 20, Scion iM, Corolla Axio/Fielder 140..160, Corolla Rumion, Allion/Premio 260, Isis
2ZR-FBE (1.8 EFI DVVT). Flex-fuel version (emergency markets). Used for: Corolla 140..170, C-HR
2ZR-FXE (1.8 EFI VVT). Hybrid version. Used for: Corolla 210, Auris 150..180, Prius 30..50, Prius Alpha 40, C-HR, Noah/Voxy/Esquire 80, Lexus CT
3ZR-FE (2.0 EFI DVVT). Replacement of 1AZ-FE/FSE. Used for: Avensis 270, RAV4 30..40, Corolla 140..150..170, E'Z, Wish 20, Noah/Voxy 70
3ZR-FAE (2.0 EFI DVVT Valvematic). Replacement of 1AZ-FE/FSE. Used for: Avensis 270, C-HR, RAV4 30..40, Wish 20, Noah/Voxy/Esquire 70..80, Allion/Premio 260, Isis, Harrier 60, Lexus NX
3ZR-FBE (2.0 EFI DVVT). Flex-fuel version (emergency markets). Used for: Corolla 140..170
4ZR-FE (1.6 EFI DVVT). Analogue of 1ZR-FE for China. Used for: Corolla 120, Levin 180, Yaris 90, Vios 90 CHN
5ZR-FXE (1.8 EFI VVT). Analogue of 2ZR-FXE for China. Used for: Prius 30, Lexus CT CHN
6ZR-FE (2.0 EFI DVVT). Analogue of 3ZR-FE for China. Used for: RAV4 40 CHN
6ZR-FAE (2.0 EFI DVVT Valvematic). Analogue of 3ZR-FAE for China. Used for: RAV4 40 CHN
7ZR-FE (1.8 EFI DVVT). Analogue of 2ZR-FE for China. Used for: Levin 180 CHN
8ZR-FXE (1.8 EFI VVT). Analogue of 2ZR-FXE for China. Used for: Corolla 180, Levin 180 CHN

The first ZR engines were introduced in the fall of 2006 for Japanese domestic market models, Valvematic versions are available since the summer of 2007.

The basic differences of numerous variants can be illustrated by the example of only three motors.


3ZR-FAE (2.0 EFI DVVT Valvematic)

Engine mechanical

The cylinder block - aluminum "open deck" with thin cast iron liners. The liners are fused into block and their special rough outer surface promotes strong connection. The wall thickness between the cylinders 7 mm only, no overhaul with reboring provided by manufacturer.


1 - cylinder block, 2 - oil separator, 3 - oil separator cover. a - liner

The axis of the crankshaft has been shifted by 8 mm relative to the cylinder axis lines ("desaxage"), thus reducing the lateral component of the force exerted by the piston to the cylinder wall, reducing wear.


a - bore center, b - crankshaft center, c - offset crankshaft, d - center crankshaft, e - maximum pressure

The crankshaft has 8 balance weights, narrowed journals and individual main bearing caps.

Piston - alloy, compact T-shaped in projection, with cutted skirt. The groove for the upper compression ring is anodized, the edge of the upper compression ring and oil scraper - anti-wear PVD coating. The piston/rod connection - by full-float pin.


1 - piston, 2 - piston ring, 3 - compression ring 1, 4 - compression ring 2, 5 - oil ring. a - taper squish shape, b - anodic oxide coating, c - resin coating, d - PVD coating

The massive alloy crankcase mounted to block also performs the function of the sump upper part. Lower sump - steel stamped.


1 - oil pan 1 (crank case), 2 - oil pump, 3 - oil pan 2. a - oil passage, b - A/C compressor bracket

The camshafts are installed in a separate housing, which mounted on the cylinder head - it simplifies the design and manufacturing technology of cylinder head, however, another joint of parts has appeared requiring sealing.


1 - intake valve, 2 - spark plug hole, 3 - exhaust valve, 4 - camshaft housing, 5 - taper squish. b - intake side, c - exhaust side

There are hydraulic lash adjusters and roller rockers in the valvetrain mechanism.


1 - cam, 2 - valve rocker arm, 3 - oil passage, 4 - valve lash adjuster, 5 - oscillating cam, 6 - roller arm, 7 - plunger, 8 - check ball, 9 - check ball spring, 10 - plunger spring

The head cover is made of plastic and provided with oil delivery pipe for the rockers lubrication.


1 - cylinder head cover, 2 - cylinder head cover gasket, 3 - oil delivery pipe

At the Valvematic engines the vane type vacuum pump is driven by rear side of exhaust camshaft (for brake booster operation).



Timing drive - 16-valve DOHC, driven by single-row roller chain (pitch 8 mm) with hydraulic tensioner (and ratchet mechanism).


1 - timing chain, 2 - intake VVT controller, 3 - exhaust VVT controller, 4 - chain tensioner, 5 - chain tensioner slipper, 6 - chain vibration damper, 7 - Valvematic mechanism, 8 - exhaust valve, 9 - intake valve, 10 - continuously variable valve lift controller, 11 - intake camshaft, 12 - exhaust camshaft, 13 - valve rocker arm, 14 - valve lash adjuster, 15 - valve

The water pump and oil nozzle line for chain lubrication are integrated in the cast aluminum timing chain cover.


1 - timing chain cover, 2 - water pump gasket, 3 - water pump. a - water passage, b - oil passage, c - timing chain oil jet

VVT actuators both for the intake and exhaust camshafts are installed (DVVT - Dual Variable Valve Timing). Timing variations range - 55 for intake and 40 for exhaust.



Each of engines has a modification with continuous variable lifting of the intake valves (Valvematic) - see "Valvematic system".


1 - Valvematic mechanism, 2 - VM controller, 3 - oscillating cam, 4 - roller arm, 5 - valve rocker arm, 6 - valve rocker arm lost motion damper


Lubrication

Trochoid type oil pump is installed in the crankcase and is driven by short additional chain.


1 - camshaft timing oil control valve (exhaust), 2 - exhaust VVT controller, 3 - intake VVT controller, 4 - chain tensioner, 5 - oil filter, 6 - oil pump, 7 - oil nozzle, 8 - valve lash adjuster, 9 - VM controller, 10 - oil delivery pipe, 11 - camshaft timing oil control valve (intake)

Engines with Valvematic are equipped with mechanical bypass valve, which allows to regulate oil flow and pressure depending on the engine speed. See for details - "Variable discharge oil pump"

Oil nozzles that lubricate and cool the pistons are provided.


1 - cylinder block, 2 - oil nozzle, 3 - check ball.

The oil filter layout is installed horizontally at bulkhead side. Since 2008, the collapsible filterers with replaceable cartridges were used...


1 - oil filter cap, 2 - o-ring, 3 - element, 4 - bracket

...But ten years later, the return from this malpractice to normal spin-on filters began.


1 - oil filter, 2 - bracket

Officially prescribed oil viscosity for ZR series:


Once again - if in the North American and Japanese markets for the same engines the most liquid oils (0W-16..0W-20) are called preferred, then the reason for this is only the manufacturers desire to declare maximum efficiency (or rather, minimum CO2 emissions) for the public, that was zombiefied by speculating on global warming / climate change mythes. Of course, there are no structural limitations for the use of more viscous oils inside the engine.


Cooling

Cooling system is classic: pump drive by outer side of serpentine belt, "cold" (78-82C) mechanical thermostat, heated throttle body.


1 - water pump. a - from radiator, b - to radiator, c - to heater core, d - from heater core


a - models with CVT. 1 - cylinder head, 2 - cylinder block, 3 - water pump, 4 - thermostat, 5 - reservoir tank, 6 - radiator, 7 - throttle body, 8 - heater core, 9 - CVT fluid warmer

Engine is equipped with separate fan motor control unit, which allows to adjust fan speed depending on the coolant temperature, refrigerant pressure, vehicle speed and engine speed.


Intake and exhaust

Intake and exhaust manifolds location - according to modern tradition, front and rear respectively.

Typically, ACIS (Acoustic Control Induction System) is installed in the intake manifold, which changes the effective length of the intake duct to increase power. At low and medium speed and high load ACIS valve is closed and the air flows via long path, in other conditions the valve is opened and air flows via shorter path.


1 - actuator, 2 - VSV, 3 - intake air control valve, 4 - throttle position sensor, 5 - ECM, 6 - crank position sensor, 7 - intake manifold. a - valve closed, b - valve open






Fuel system / Engine control

The classic multi-point fuel injection system looks extremely simple by today's standards.


1 - smart key ecu, 2- DLC3, 3 - accelerator pedal sensor, 4 - intake mass air flow sensor / intake air temperature sensor, 5 - starter, 6 - ECM, 7 - oxygen sensor (B1S2), 8 - stop-start ECU, 9 - fuel pump, 10 - VVT valve (exhaust), 11 - VVT valve (intake), 12 - fuel injector, 13 - ACIS VSV, 14 - vacuum sensor, 15 - knock sensor, 16 - temperature sensor, 17 - crankshaft position sensor, 18 - throttle body (ETCS), 19 - engine coolant temperature sensor, 20 - AFS sensor (B1S1), 21 - Valvematic controller, 22 - camshaft position sensor (exhaust), 23 - camshaft position sensor (intake), 24 - ignition coil

· Valvematic system has led to a change in the control principle - the mixture dosing by valve lift changing, which is carried out with the throttle fully open.
· Mass air flow sensor (MAF) - "hot wire" type, combined with the intake temperature sensor.
· Throttle valve - fully electronically controlled (ETCS): DC motor, dual-channel non-contact position sensor (Hall effect). ETCS performs some functions of traction control (TRC) and stabilization (VSC).
· Accelerator pedal position sensor - dual-channel non-contact (Hall effect).
· Camshaft position sensor - MRE (magnetoresistive), provide a digital output signal and work properly at low engine speed.
· Knock sensor - wideband piezoelectric, unlike the old type of resonant knock sensors it feels a wider range of vibration frequencies.
· Oxygen sensor upstream catalyst - planar type air fuel ratio sensor (89467-); downstream catalyst - standard cup-type oxygen sensor (89465-).
· Injectors with elongate nozzle are installed in the cylinder head and the fuel is injected as close as possible to the intake valves.
· The fuel pulsation damper is integrated in the fuel rail.


1 - fuel delivery pipe, 2 - inner pipe (for absorbing pulsation)

· EVAP absorber is combined with fuel pump module.
· Spark plugs - thin "iridium" type with long threaded portion.
· Charging system - two types of alternators are used - with conventional or segment conductor type alternators with overrunning clutch in the pulley and 90-100 A output. Continuously charging of battery is carried out during deceleration, but in steady-state mode cycles of charging and discharging of the battery are alternates for maximum efficiency. More complex control system required to use the battery temperature sensor and current sensor.
· Starting system basically - 0.8-1.1 kW starter with planetary gear. The implementation of Stop-Start caused the installation of new 1.7 kW starter TS type (tandem solenoid). Independent solenoids for push out pinion gear and for motor allow engaging with the rotating flywheel, for quick restart immediately after engine shutdown.



3ZR-FE (2.0 EFI DVVT)

The best engine of ZR series - completely traditional, devoid of Valvematic excesses and not yet convicted of serious defects.

• The main design differences - in the cylinder head - the traditional valvetrain is installed (DVVT, timing variation range - 43/40).


1 - chain vibration damper 2, 2 - timing chain, 3 - VVT sprocket (exhaust), 4 - chain tensioner, 5 - chain tensioner slipper, 6 - chain vibration damper 1, 7 - VVT sprocket (intake), 8 - exhaust valve, 9 - intake valve, 10 - intake camshaft, 11 - exhaust camshaft, 12 - valve rocker arm, 13 - valve lash adjuster, 14 - valve


1 - intake valve, 2 - spark plug hole, 3 - exhaust valve, 4 - camshaft housing, 5 - taper squish b - intake side, c - exhaust side

• Standard oil pump
• Standard starter with planetary gear


1 - DLC3, 2 - accelerator pedal sensor, 3 - intake mass air flow sensor / intake air temperature sensor, 4 - ECM, 5 - oxygen sensor (B1S2), 6 - fuel pump, 7 - VVT valve (exhaust), 8 - VVT valve (intake), 9 - fuel injector, 10 - ACIS VSV, 11 - knock sensor, 12 - crankshaft position sensor, 13 - throttle body (ETCS), 14 - engine coolant temperature sensor, 15 - AFS sensor (B1S1), 16 - camshaft position sensor (exhaust), 17 - camshaft position sensor (intake), 18 - ignition coil



2ZR-FXE (1.8 EFI VVT)

Hybrid modification has a number of differences.

Engine mechanical

• VVT actuator is installed only on the intake camshaft (variation range - 62), the exhaust timing is fixed. The motor operates on a Miller-Atkinson cycle.


1 - camshaft (intake), 2 - camshaft (exhaust), 3 - VVT sprocket, 4 - chain vibration damper 2, 5 - timing chain, 6 - chain tensioner, 7 - chain tensioner slipper, 8 - chain vibration damper 1, 9 - exhaust valve, 10 - intake valve, 11 - valve rocker arm, 12 - valve lash adjuster

Lubrication

• Known circumstances required to install the oil level sensor..



Officially prescribed oil viscosity for 2ZR-FXE:


Cooling

• The most fundamental difference - the electric coolant pump, controlled by the engine ECU.


1 - timing chain cover, 2 - engine water pump, 3 - water inlet with thermostat, 4 - stator, 5 - rotor, 6 - shaft

• EGR system equipped with water cooler
• Exhaust heat recovery exchanger can be installed, as well as a radiator shutter..


1 - reserve tank, 2 - engine water pump, 3 - water inlet with thermostat, 4 - throttle body, 5 - flow shutting valve, 6 - EGR valve, 7 - EGR pipe with cooler. a - to radiator, b - from radiator, c - from heater radiator, d - to heater radiator, e - from exhaust heat recirculation system, f - to exhaust heat recirculation system

• An optional circuit with a shutter valve should allow to regulate coolant flow between the engine and the heat exchanger, reduce the flow through the engine when the heater is operating until the engine warms up, accelerate heating and maintain a more uniform temperature mode.


a - coolant temperature 5-65C / b - coolant temperature 65-88C/ c - coolant temperature above 88C. 1 - engine water pump, 2 - EGR valve, 3 - throttle body, 4 - EGR cooler, 5 - heater radiator unit, 6 - exhaust heat recirculation device, 7 - flow shutting valve (closed), 8 - engine, 9 - radiator, 10 - thermostat (closed), 11 - flow shutting valve (open), 12 - thermostat (open)

When current is applied, the valve is closed. If the coil is not powered and the pump is running, the valve opens by the coolant flow and remains open until the flow stops.


1 - housing, 2 - spring, 3 - valve, 4 - core, 5 - coil, 6 - yoke

Intake and exhaust

• Some withdrawn - exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR), valve driven by step motor.


1 - EGR valve, 2 - EGR pipe, 3 - EGR cooler

The gases taken downstream the catalyst pass through a cooler, a control valve and are distributed along the channels of the intake manifold.


1 - heat insulator 1, 2 - EGR pipe, 3 - gasket, 4 - gasket, 5 - exhaust manifold, 6 - air fuel ratio sensor, 7 - heat insulator, 8 - catalyst


1 - intake manifold, 2 - vacuum sensor. a - EGR port, b - purge port, c - PCV port, e - EGR distribution path

Control system


1 - vacuum sensor, 2 - knock sensor, 3 - throttle body, 4 - engine coolant temperature sensor, 5 - flow shutting valve, 6 - engine coolant temperature sensor 2, 7 - EGR valve, 8 - fuel injector, 9 - camshaft position sensor, 10 - ignition coil, 11 - air fuel ratio sensor, 12 - crankshaft position sensor, 13 - engine water pump, 14 - VVT valve



Experience

• Minor defects, especially of the first years of production::
- increased carbon deposits in the combustion chambers
- alternator pulley defects
- leaks and noise of the coolant pump
- VVT sprockets knocking during start-up - incurable defect of most modern Toyota engines, including ZR



• The specific knock sound of the vacuum pump (Valvematic models)


• Start-up problems due to fouling of injectors. Described in TSB EG-0013T-0217, modified injectors (2016 type) are recommended.


• Engine shutdown due to spontaneous disconnection of the Valvematic controller. Described in TSB EG-0075T-0912. Fixed by a modified controller flange.


• Engine malfunctions due to a failure of the Valvematic controller (DTCs P26## and P10##). It was partially described in several TSB in 2010-2019 years. However, in practice, the failures does not fixed. Typically, the problem is solved by installing a second-hand controller, although local craftsmen have already established remanufacturing of broken units.


• Excessive oil consumption 2ZR-FXE. Described in TSB EG-0112T-0914. If the oil burn ratio is above 0.5 l / 1000 km, it is recommended to replace the set of pistons and piston rings with the modified ones. At some countries where the hybrids are popular this problem has become quite resonant.



Even in comparison with the previous generation of Toyota engines (ZZ and AZ), not to mention of modern engines from other manufacturers, ZR are deservedly considered reliable and unpretentious motors without any critical problems. At the same time, we can note once again - any technical innovations of Toyota mean nothing but unnecessary worries for the owners: even for ZR series, the majority of known defects are somehow related to the Valvematic.



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